How to Overcome Your Fear of the Unknown (2023)


For many of us, uncertainty can be nerve-racking. That reaction, however, obscures a crucial fact: Uncertainty and possibility are two sides of the same coin. Chances are, your biggest achievements and transformational moments all came after a period of uncertainty—one that probably felt stressful but that you pushed through to accomplish something great.

Uncertainty doesn’t have to be paralyzing. After studying innovators and changemakers who handle it well and reviewing research on resilience and tolerance for ambiguity, the authors have found that the following four principles can help: (1) Reframe your situation by focusing on the potential upside. (2) Prime yourself by taking small risks and reducing uncertainty in other areas of your life. (3) Take a series of modest actions instead of making bet-the-farm moves. And (4) sustain yourself by recasting setbacks and focusing on things that have true meaning for you.

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Humans are wired to fear the unknown. That’s why uncertainty—whether at the macro level of a global economic, health, or geopolitical crisis or at the micro level (Will I get that job? Will this venture be successful? Am I on the right career path?)—can feel nerve-racking, exhausting, and even debilitating. However, that gut reaction leads people to miss a crucial fact: Uncertainty and possibility are two sides of the same coin.

Consider the achievements you’re most proud of, the moments that transformed your life, the relationships that make your life worth living. We’ll bet that they all happened after a period of uncertainty—one that probably felt stressful but that you nevertheless pushed through to accomplish something great. When we moved abroad, for example, we faced uncertainty about making less money, paying higher taxes, doing more-challenging work, and introducing our children to new schools, a new language, and a new culture. But seven years later we are so grateful for all the possibilities the move opened up.

Our modern-day heroes all have a similar story. Rosa Parks faced great uncertainty when she refused to give up her seat, igniting the Montgomery bus boycott and paving the way for desegregation. Nearly everyone initially thought that Elon Musk and his team would fail when they set out to revolutionize electric vehicles and push the world toward a more environmentally friendly future. They couldn’t have achieved their breakthroughs if they had been afraid of uncertainty.

Uncertainty doesn’t have to paralyze any of us. Over the past decade we have studied innovators and changemakers who’ve learned to navigate it well, and we’ve reviewed the research on topics like resilience and tolerance for ambiguity. The findings are clear: We all can become adept at managing uncertainty and empower ourselves to step confidently into the unknown and seize the opportunity it presents. Applying the following four principles will help you do that.

1. Reframe Your Situation

Most people are loss-averse. Multiple studies demonstrate that the way you frame things affects how you make decisions. The research shows, for instance, that if one treatment for a new disease is described as 95% effective and another as 5% ineffective, people prefer the former even though the two are statistically identical. Every innovation, every change, every transformation—personal or professional—comes with potential upsides and downsides. And though most of us instinctively focus on the latter, it’s possible to shift that mindset and decrease our fear.

One of our favorite ways of doing this is the “infinite game” approach, developed by New York University professor James Carse. His advice is to stop seeing the rules, boundaries, and purpose of the “game” you’re playing—the job you’re after, the project you’ve been assigned, the career path you’re on—as fixed. That puts you in a win-or-lose mentality in which uncertainty heightens your anxiety. In contrast, infinite players recognize uncertainty as an essential part of the game—one that adds an element of surprise and possibility and enables them to challenge their roles and the game’s parameters.

Yvon Chouinard, the cofounder of Patagonia, is an infinite player. As a kid he struggled to fit in, running away from one school, almost failing out of a second, and becoming a “dirtbag” climber after he graduated. But rather than seeing himself as a failure, he recounts in his book Let My People Go Surfing, he “learned at an early age that it’s better to invent your own game; then you can always be a winner.”

Chouinard not only created one of the world’s most successful outdoor-apparel brands but also changed production norms by adopting more-sustainable materials, altered the retail model by refitting old buildings for new shops, and challenged traditional HR policies by introducing practices like on-site childcare. Some of those innovations created uncertainty for the business. For example, Patagonia adopted organic cotton before it became popular, when it was expensive and hard to source. When a financial downturn hit, outsiders encouraged the company to buy cheaper materials. But using organic cotton was in keeping with its values, so Patagonia persisted, despite the cost and the supply risks, and in the end grew its sales while its competitors saw their sales fall.

Chouinard has learned to face uncertainty with courage—and in fact to be energized by it—because he views his role as improving the game, not just playing it. “Managers of a business that want to be around for the next 100 years had better love change,” he advises in his book. “When there [is] no crisis, the wise leader…will invent one.”

Of course, when uncertainty is forced upon us, we often need help reframing. Consider Amy and Michael, a professional couple with four children who moved from the United States to France in 2017 for Michael’s job. When the pandemic started, his position was eliminated, and then companies that initially promised him job offers started stalling. In July 2020, Amy and Michael were scheduled to fly home to the United States, but three days before they left they still didn’t have jobs or even a place to live. Family and friends were asking for updates, and their teenagers harangued them: “You are the worst parents ever! How can you have no clue where we’re going next?”

Two days before their flight, Amy confided to us over lunch that Michael had been offered a job, but neither of them wanted him to accept it. “Should we just take the bird in hand?” she wondered aloud. “I feel like we are such losers.” We encouraged her to reframe. She and Michael were showing resilience and bravery by exploring all possible next steps and holding out for the right one. How lucky their kids were to have parents bold enough to know what they really wanted and wait for it! The couple returned to the States with curiosity and courage and, by summer’s end, had both found jobs they loved as well as a fixer-upper home in a fun location.

2. Prime Yourself for New Risks

Although innovators often talk about eating uncertainty for breakfast, if you dig deeper, you discover some curious habits. When Paul Smith—a designer known for daring color combinations—travels, he always stays in the same hotel, often in the same room. Others we’ve studied book the same airplane seat for every flight, follow the same morning routine, or wear the same clothes. Steve Jobs had a lifetime supply of black turtlenecks.

All those habits provide balance. By reducing uncertainty in one part of your life, they prime you to tolerate more of it in other parts. Some people ground themselves with steady, long-term relationships, for instance. As the serial entrepreneur Sam Yagan, one of Time’s 100 most influential people and the former CEO of explains, “My best friends are from junior high and high school. I married my high school sweetheart. Given how much ambiguity I traffic in at work, I do look for less in other areas of my life.”

You can also prime yourself for uncertainty by getting to know the kinds of risk you have a natural aversion to or an affinity with. Case in point: Back when Nathan was pursuing a PhD in Silicon Valley and Susannah had started a clothing line that wasn’t yet making money, we had four children to support and were still living off student loans in a few hundred square feet of on-campus housing. At lunch one day, Nathan told his mentor, Tina Seelig, “Let’s face it, if I really had any courage, I would become an entrepreneur, but I’m just not a risk-taker.” Tina disagreed. She explained that there are many types of risks: financial, intellectual, social, emotional, physical, and so on. In Nathan’s situation, avoiding financial risk by pursuing a stable career as an academic—while still taking intellectual risks—was a prudent choice. The important lesson is that knowing which risks you tolerate well can help you see where to push more boldly into the frontier, while knowing which you don’t will help you prepare so that you can approach them with more confidence.

Just as important, you can increase your risk tolerance by taking smaller risks, even in unrelated fields. Consider Piet Coelewij, a former senior executive at Amazon and Philips. When he was thinking of leaving the corporate track to head the expansion of Sonos—then a start-up—in Europe, he decided to take up kickboxing. Coelewij describes himself as “naturally fearful of physical confrontation,” but trying kickboxing helped him build up his muscles for dealing with uncertainty, which made him “more comfortable with higher-risk decisions in other settings with less complete information,” he says. “Once you are in a cycle of lowering fear and developing courage, you create a virtuous circle that allows you to continuously improve.”

3. Do Something

Taking action is one of the most important parts of facing uncertainty, since you learn with each step you take. Research by Timothy Ott and Kathleen Eisenhardt demonstrates that most successful breakthroughs are produced by a series of small steps, not giant bet-the-farm efforts. Starting modestly can be more effective and less anxiety-provoking than trying to do everything at once.

When Jenn Hyman and Jenny Fleiss, the founders of Rent the Runway, first had the idea of renting out designer dresses online, they were students at Harvard Business School. But they didn’t begin by writing a business plan, raising money, and then getting big as fast as possible. Instead they made one small move: They rustled up some dresses, set up a dressing room on Harvard’s campus before a big dance, and observed firsthand whether women would rent them. Then, one experiment after another, one step at a time, they built a large, successful public company.

Sometimes you need to quickly ramp up your learning to blow away the fog that obscures the view of what to do next. Entrepreneurs face that challenge all the time. Research on the most-effective start-up accelerators demonstrates that the best way to help founders meet it is to make them talk with as many people, from as many different backgrounds, as quickly as possible (instead of keeping their ideas to themselves for fear that someone might steal them). Leading accelerators often force entrepreneurs to meet more than 200 people, some from seemingly unrelated backgrounds, in just one month.

It’s not unusual for invaluable input to come from unexpected corners. The founder of one new platform dedicated to helping charities, including religious organizations, initially balked at the feedback session his accelerator had arranged with the vice president of marketing at Playboy. To his shock, the VP not only was a churchgoer but also gave him some of the most helpful advice he had received so far.

Finally, as you make your way forward, focus on values rather than on goals. David Heinemeier Hansson, the creator of Ruby on Rails and the cofounder of multiple start-ups, including Basecamp and, views goals as “oppressive” and argues that setting them doesn’t even work. “Whether you meet $10 million or not does not happen because you set that as a goal,” he explains. If you instead aim to fulfill your values (which for him include coding great software, treating employees well, and acting ethically in the market), you’ll have the confidence to make the moves you need to, no matter how the world responds, because you’ve redefined what success means to you. Even if a big project fails, he says, “I will still look back on the path—the two years and millions of dollars we spent developing this thing—and feel great about it.”

He took that approach when Apple began imposing exorbitant app store fees on his most recent project,, threatening to shut the new email service down just after it launched. He admits that even he felt anxiety about the uncertainty, just as anyone else would. But his focus on values, rather than goals—in particular, on fairness in the tech industry—“gave us freedom to go all in” fighting back, he says. His situation became a rallying point for entrepreneurs, and the free press that resulted became “the greatest launch campaign we could have imagined.”

4. Sustain Yourself

According to Ben Feringa, who won a Nobel Prize in chemistry for work on molecular machines that could one day power nanobots that repair the pipes in your house or keep diseases out of your blood, scientific discovery happens only after facing uncertainty. That means, he says, you have to “get resilient at handling the frustration that comes with it.” His approach includes both emotional hygiene (attending to emotions—much as you would a physical wound—so that they don’t turn into paralyzing self-doubt or unproductive rumination) and reality checks (in which you recognize that failure is just part of the process).

Feringa admits that failing hurts and that he allows himself to feel frustrated, even for a few days. But then he stops and asks, What insights can I take away from this? What’s the next step I can work on? Whether he realizes it or not, he’s adopting one of many lenses that can help people recast setbacks, such as the learning lens (what you can learn from them), the gratitude lens (what you still have, not what you lost), the timing lens (it’s just not the right time now, but that doesn’t mean it won’t ever be), and our favorite: the challenge lens (you become the hero only by facing obstacles).

Another practice that the scientists, creators, and entrepreneurs we’ve studied use to sustain themselves is to focus on the people and things that have meaning for them. You can get through anything—not just the fear of potential losses but the pain of real ones—by holding tight to what really matters.

Take Jos and Alison Skeates, a British couple who launched a small chain of jewelry shops featuring new designers. They’d opened locations in three London neighborhoods—Clerkenwell, Notting Hill, and Chiswick—all while raising their two young girls. Then a series of disasters struck. First, construction around the Notting Hill store killed foot traffic. Then the financial crisis of 2008 crushed sales and, much worse, Alison was diagnosed with an aggressive form of cancer. They had to close two shops and declare bankruptcy. But they navigated those tragedies by remembering that their love and their family were more important than the business.

Slowly, Alison’s health improved and the cancer went into remission. Eventually they relaunched the Clerkenwell shop, repaid all their former creditors, and even won an award for being the UK jewelry boutique of the year. They also discovered a new, more meaningful pursuit: becoming one of the UK’s first certified B-corp jewelry workshops, leading the way in sustainable practices.

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Ultimately, their switch to sustainable jewelry strengthened them and their business. Recently, Jos went back to school to earn a master’s degree in sustainability. More than 30 years out of school, he seriously doubted whether he could meet the rigorous reading and writing demands of the program while still running the store. The upside to this uncertainty? “What I have learned has been so interesting and inspiring, and our sales have increased,” he says. Although he and Alison didn’t build the chic jewelry empire they had imagined, their lives are happier and richer on this side of many challenges.

. . .

Resilience—being able to take a blow and stay standing—is important. But we argue for something more: learning to transform uncertainty into opportunity. The only way for any of us to tap into new possibilities is through the gateway of the unknown. And it doesn’t have to be a painful process if you believe in your ability to navigate it. Our hope is that you can use our advice to transform your relationship with change and inspire others to do the same.

How to Overcome Your Fear of the Unknown (1)

Editor’s note: Nathan Furr and Susannah Harmon Furr are the authors of The Upside of Uncertainty (Harvard Business Review Press, 2022), from which this article is adapted.

A version of this article appeared in the July–August 2022 issue of Harvard Business Review.


Why do you fear the unknown? ›

The brain is constantly trying to predict what will happen next, allowing it to prepare the body and mind in the most effective way possible. In uncertain situations, that planning is a lot harder – and if you're potentially facing a predator or a human foe, the wrong response could be deadly.

Does fear of the unknown cause anxiety? ›

Like many fears or phobias, symptoms may vary between people. Those with a fear of the unknown may experience intense feelings of distress and anxiety and may even experience panic attacks.

How do I get comfortable with the unknown? ›

But these simple steps can help you better face life's uncertainties.
  1. Be kind to yourself. ...
  2. Reflect on past successes. ...
  3. Develop new skills. ...
  4. Limit exposure to news. ...
  5. Avoid dwelling on things you can't control. ...
  6. Take your own advice. ...
  7. Engage in self-care. ...
  8. Seek support from those you trust.
Oct 24, 2017

What is fear of the deep unknown? ›

The thalassophobia definition is pretty straightforward — it's defined as the persistent fear of vast, deep, and often dark bodies of water that feel dangerous. Specifically, thalassophobia describes a person's fear of the great unknown in the water right below their feet.

What is the rarest phobia? ›

1. Arachibutyrophobia (Fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of your mouth) Arachibutyrophobia is the fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of your mouth. While the phenomenon has happened to everyone at one point or another, people with arachibutyrophobia are extremely afraid of it.

Is fear of the unknown an irrational fear? ›

Xenophobia is the irrational sensation of fear experienced about a person or a group of persons as well as situations that are perceived as strange or foreign. It is the fear of anything that is beyond one's comfort zone.

What does the Bible say about fear? ›

Be strong and courageous. Do not be afraid or terrified because of them, for the Lord your God goes with you; he will never leave you nor forsake you. But now thus says the Lord, he who created you, O Jacob, he who formed you, O Israel: “Fear not, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by name, you are mine.”

Why am I so scared of everything? ›

Feeling afraid all the time is a common symptom of anxiety disorder. Feeling scared all the time is both caused by behavior and the consequences of stress, especially chronic stress. This article explains the relationship between anxiety, stress, and feeling afraid all the time, and what you can do to stop it.

What causes fear in the brain? ›

Fear starts in the part of the brain called the amygdala. According to Smithsonian Magazine, “A threat stimulus, such as the sight of a predator, triggers a fear response in the amygdala, which activates areas involved in preparation for motor functions involved in fight or flight.

What is the most common phobia? ›

1) Arachnophobia – fear of spiders

Arachnophobia is the most common phobia – sometimes even a picture can induce feelings of panic. And lots of people who aren't phobic as such still avoid spiders if they can.

How do you trust the unknown? ›

Trusting in the unknown is recognizing that there is a greater intelligence orchestrating the magic that is constantly happening all around us. We cannot always know what the outcome of a particular action will be, but we can learn to connect to our own hearts to guide us through the mysterious flow of life.

What is the fear of moving into the unknown? ›

The fear of change, or metathesiophobia , is a phobia that causes people to avoid changing their circumstances due to being extremely afraid of the unknown. It is sometimes associated with the fear of moving, also known as tropophobia.

When faced with the unknown what is the best response? ›

The easiest response is to retract, to return to a place of comfort, or to resort to the safest possible solution, but there's a better way to not only tolerate but to actually navigate through uncertainty, as you make complex decisions. How? Start with introspection.

What is an example of fear of the unknown? ›

Examples of fearing the unknown

being injured or ill. boing to new places or going out at all (social anxiety) trying new foods. other cultures and races (racism and xenophobia)

What part of the brain controls fear? ›

Many of their studies begin with the amygdala, an almond-shaped structure that is considered the hub for fear processing in the brain.

Do psychopaths feel fear? ›

Psychopathy is a fascinating disorder which has been a source of inspiration for several books, television series and movies.

What is the 1st longest phobia? ›

Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia is one of the longest words in the dictionary, and ironically, it means the fear of long words. It originally was referred to as Sesquipedalophobia but was changed at some point to sound more intimidating.

What is the least common fear in the world? ›

Spectrophobia is the fear of mirrors. As a result of this fear, people may avoid any situation where they might encounter a mirror. This can create significant disruptions in an individual's life, making it difficult to enter different social settings or even leave the house.

What is the longest phobia word? ›

Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia is one of the longest words in the dictionary — and, in an ironic twist, is the name for a fear of long words. Sesquipedalophobia is another term for the phobia. The American Psychiatric Association doesn't officially recognize this phobia.

What is Megalohydrothalassophobia? ›

megalohydrothalassophobia (fear of large underwater creatures or objects)

Should we explore the unknown? ›

Without taking the plunge into the unknown, people and society can never grow or mature. By staying in the light and comfort of familiarity, they miss every opportunity for experience that life has to offer.

Why am I scared to go places by myself? ›

Autophobia, or monophobia, makes you feel extremely anxious when you're alone. This fear of being alone can affect your relationships, social life and career. You may also have a fear of abandonment that stems from a traumatic childhood experience.

How do I get rid of fear in my mind and heart? ›

10 ways to fight your fears
  1. Take time out. It's impossible to think clearly when you're flooded with fear or anxiety. ...
  2. Breathe through panic. ...
  3. Face your fears. ...
  4. Imagine the worst. ...
  5. Look at the evidence. ...
  6. Don't try to be perfect. ...
  7. Visualise a happy place. ...
  8. Talk about it.
Jan 4, 2023

What does Jesus say about being afraid? ›

Luke 12:32. (Jesus says), “Do not be afraid, little flock, for your Father has been pleased to give you the kingdom.”

What is the root of the spirit of fear? ›

The Spiritual root of fear is rooted in the fear of death according to Hebrews 2:14-15. Jesus came to “… release those who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.”

Why am I paranoid and scared of everything? ›

Paranoia is a symptom of some mental health problems. Many people experience paranoid delusions as part of an episode of psychosis. Physical illness. Paranoia is sometimes a symptom of certain physical illnesses such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, strokes, Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Why am I always nervous and scared? ›

A little anxiety is fine, but long-term anxiety may cause more serious health problems, such as high blood pressure (hypertension). You may also be more likely to develop infections. If you're feeling anxious all the time, or it's affecting your day-to-day life, you may have an anxiety disorder or a panic disorder.

What is a scared person called? ›

afraid, agitated, anxious, frightened, hesitant, jittery, nervous, panicky, scared, shy, skittish, tense, timid, uneasy, aflutter, aghast, chicken, chickenhearted, diffident, discomposed.

What organ is affected by fear? ›

As soon as you recognize fear, your amygdala (small organ in the middle of your brain) goes to work. It alerts your nervous system, which sets your body's fear response into motion.

Which medicine is best for fear? ›

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are most often prescribed to treat anxiety, social phobia or panic disorder. These can include: escitalopram (Cipralex) sertraline (Lustral)

What hormone is responsible for fear? ›

The adrenal gland is an endocrine gland that produces two fear hormones—adrenaline and cortisol. These hormones are carried in the bloodstream to all parts of your body.

What is your biggest fear answers? ›

The best way to answer this question is with honesty. Talk about a real fear that you experience and in the rare case that you do not fear anything, take this opportunity to talk about a weakness that you think may be your Achilles' heel.

How many fears does the average person have? ›

Key points. There are only five basic fears, out of which almost all of our other so-called fears are manufactured. These fears include extinction, mutilation, loss of autonomy, separation, and ego death.

What are the 4 types of fear? ›

The Four Fear Responses: Fight, Flight, Freeze, and Fawn.

Is it natural to fear the unknown? ›

Fear of the unknown is purported to be one of the fundamental fears that humans, and many other animals have. It evolved to make us hesitant to go into ambiguous or uncertain new environments which may present a danger, or engage in an activity where we may lose something.

How do you prepare yourself for the unknown? ›

Block out time on your calendar to ensure you engage with these subjects and, over time, you'll feel stronger and more resilient.
  1. Study something of interest.
  2. Investigate emerging technology.
  3. Connect with those around you.
  4. Reflect on yourself.
Feb 15, 2022

Why should we go into the unknown? ›

Whether big or small, the Unknown beckons us to move forward, explore new ways of behavior and living, touch Life at new points, connect with the ground of our Being. By moving within the field of the known and familiar, we stop learning and developing; by moving towards the Unknown we expand and evolve.

Who said fear of the unknown? ›

H. P. Lovecraft 1890–1937. American writer. The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the oldest and strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown.

What is the fear of the future or unknown? ›

Fear of the future is anticipatory anxiety. It's excessive worry about potential future events. People with anticipatory anxiety often experience panic attacks. The best way to define anticipatory anxiety is that it is the anxiety of “what if?”

How do you live with the unknown? ›

How to beat FEAR in the UNKNOWN?
  1. surrender to sitting in the void of the unknown.
  2. stop yourself from imagining the worst outcomes.
  3. focus on what you want.
  4. keep your focus on the life you want to create.
  5. stay in the present, with gratitude for what you do have.

Is the fear of the unknown a weakness? ›

Fear of the unknown is humanity's greatest psychological weakness. It is one one of the anxiety and a fundamental fear found in all the human beings.

Why am I afraid of everything all of a sudden? ›

Feeling afraid all the time is a common consequence of frequent stress responses. Anxiety also activates the stress response. Many overly anxious people have a heightened sense of being afraid all the time due to the combination of anxious behavior and the stress it creates.


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